Blues - 1925 - Jelly Roll Morton
influence is seen in the reminiscences of early jazzmen who mention at least two
dozen musicians with Spanish surnames. The great Jelly Roll Morton, a local New
Orleans musician of Creole descent (the title Creole, when first used meant a
person of Spanish or French genes, the Negro, when of mixed blood was called a
Creole of Color). Morton, in a number of his compositions used what he called a
"Spanish Tinge" - music with a Spanish flavor. In Morton's composition
"New Orleans Blues" we find the Tango rhythm prominent.
(Chilean Dance) - 1913 - (Cotton Pickers Rag and Cakewalk) - 1899 - Bone
We find the Latin
rhythm in numerous popular American sheet music. An interesting example is found
in the Creole folk song "Song of Mockery." The song introduces a Habanera
rhythm. There is no date for this composition as is the case in most folk songs,
but it is assumed that it is around the 18the century. In another Creole song
"Croony Melody," we find a Maxixe rhythm. The startling find is that this
Habanera rhythm (in double time)is in reality the same rhythm as the Cakewalk
rhythm. The cakewalk craze saw its zenith around 1899. The connection of these
two very well defined rhythms is still being explored and perhaps we will never
find the answer but the connection is too strong to ignore.
Gilbert Chase, in
his book: "The Music of Spain," (page 262) states: "The music of Spain
choreography is purely a Creole development." We also find a possible European
influence that dates from the end of the 15th century with a very
strong Creole influence becoming apparent in the 17th century.
The band will
play two melodies using the Habanera rhythm and the cakewalk rhythm and add the
percussion playing both melodies with both rhythms. The first: "Camilla,"
the second "Cotton Pickers." It is impossible to tell which is a cakewalk
and which is a Latin melody. Now we add the percussion rhythm. First the
Cakewalk rhythm (to the Chilean melody), next the Habanera rhythm to the
cakewalk. Next we switch rhythms. You cannot tell which is which. Let us play
each one in its original form.
Hello My Baby - 1899 -
we are talking about this Habenera rhythm (o o o o)
let us play a popular piece of music published in 1899 which uses a
similar rhythm. Listen to the well-known chorus of "Hello My Baby" and its
use of the Habanera/Cakewalk rhythm.
(Mexican Quadrille) - 1900
origin of the Quadrille is French (In French the word Quadrille means 'a small
square'). We find this French influence also in Mexico. Mexico's culture was
more European with little African influence. The Quadrille was the most popular
dance of New Orleans society. With the French influence in Mexico it is not
surprising to find this form with a Mexican name in its title.
Paso - 1900 - Anthony
popular forms in Mexico were at a time influenced and dominated by the Waltz.
This can be seen in a published arrangement dating 1900. The Waltz was an
influential form in many countries and one of the first 'risqué' dances,
where dancing partners actually held each other close. In 1884 the 8th
Mexican Regimental Band played at the Cotton Exhibition in New Orleans. One of
their most successful and popular tunes was the Waltz 'Over the Waves.' This
band was a great influence on early New Orleans jazz musicians and especially
the sounds of the woodwind instruments. Prior to this concert most marching
bands did not include woodwinds and it brought the woodwinds to the attention of
local New Orleans musicians.
Cubanola - 1913 - H. B.
jazz historian speculated that "Ragtime bands were the result of New Orleans
musicians trying to play Mexican music." Another says that: "Another
possible source of ragtime rhythm is dance music of the Caribbean and south
America, from pieces variously referred to as danzas, Habanera, and tangos.
Moreau Gottschalk uses these rhythms in the mid-nineteenth century. Gottschalk,
a New Orleans Creole, traveled between New Orleans and south American countries
frequently, dying in Rio de Janeiro in 1869. Ben Harney, the famous ragtime
composer remarked: "Ragtime originally takes its initiative step from Spanish
music, or rather from Mexico, where it is known under the head and names of
Habanera, Danza and Wquidilla. Thus Latin music and ragtime converge and blend,
each following a distinct path with essentially separate developments. The title
"Cubanola" - a title mention Cuba by name and New Orleans, La. In letters -
was first published by H. B. Blanke.
Black Cuban music was an influence on American popular music, the work is a
tango. These early combined styles of Latin and early New Orleans dance styles
is further solidified by the use of ragtime (and the military march) form of
composition - the form: A,B,A, transition, C, and D.
Maurice Tango - 1912 - Heim
Tango became popular in the U. S. approx. from 1910 to 1916, reaching its zenith
in 1914, declining after the First World War as jazz tunes took over the popular
scene. The 'Dance.' During the 19th and early 20th
century was probably the most popular form of social activities with frequent
occurrences of new dance styles. Many times the dance bands could not keep up
with the new style and we find published arrangements that could be used as
material that could be played in a number of dance styles. An example of this
would be one of the earliest Tango publications - "Tres Moutarde" (Too Much
Mustard). Published as a Turkey Trot, the song, when the Tango became the rage,
the publisher quickly added to the cover 'or Tango."
Tango found its way to America from Paris. It was found there as early as 1906
and became popular by the famous dance team of Irene and Vernon Castle in 1913
when they danced it on Broadway. Another dance team in Paris, Maurice and
Florence Walton, made it popular.
Mexi-Tango - 1914 -
Tango's origin was in the suburbs of Buenos Aires around 1900 evolving from
elements of the Habanera and the Milonga. In 1905 we hear the adoption of the
musical element of syncopation, a musical element that was paramount in early
jazz. Jelly Roll Morton talked of the Tango stating: "New Orleans was
inhabited with maybe every race on the face of the globe. And, of course, we had
Spanish people, plenty of them - Spanish music was a part of the city's
musical heritage and life. The Tango and what was sometimes called the
"Mexican Serenade" was a continuing part of the popular music of the day."
This close relationship between New Orleans and Mexico can be seen in our next
piece the "Mexi-Tango."
Round The Hall - 1913 -
merging of Latin rhythms and style with early jazz dancing continued to develop.
We see this convergence again in a piece entitled "Round The Hall." It is
advertised as a "Tango/Two-Step and Turkey Trot," and is called 'a
successor to "Too Much Mustard." A composition we previously mentioned. When
we examine the drum parts we find three distinct sections: the first is a Tango
rhythm, the second in a 'two-beat' rhythm, with the melody sounding Spanish
with some trills and turns. The third alternates between two measure of the
Two-Beat rhythm and two measures of the Tango rhythm. The Turkey Trot reached
its zenith around 1913 and these two dances (Turkey Trot and Tango) competed for
the most popular. This piece bring both dance forms together thus becoming
popular with dancers of both persuasions. The second half of the second section
reminds one of the traditional cakewalk rhythm. All in all, a very interesting
and entertaining piece of music.
Flor De Brazil - 1914 -
the Tango became popular in the United States during the middle 1900's, the
other Latin dances came much later: The Rumba in 1920, the Congo in 1930, and
the Brazilian Samba in the 1940's. The Latin influence in the early jazz years
came from Mexico, Argentina, and the Caribbean. The Tango also made it to Brazil
and we find a Tango "Flor De Brazil" published in 1914. After a varied
rhythmic introduction, ending in a vamp-like section in Tango rhythm, we find
the first section is in a march-like, two beat that is interrupted by a section
in Tango rhythm. The second section is strictly in Tango rhythm. The first
section is repeated, followed by an option ending section. I quote from the
heading: "The composition is adapted to both the Tango anrgention and Tango
One-Step. The first part can be played for either one, but the trio should be
selected to meet the requirement of the dance."
Bohemian Life -
(Maxixe) - 1914 - Madeiros
Maxixe is the oldest urban dance of Brazil, its origin is in the late 19th
century. One of its interesting elements is the use of syncopation. The major
component of the Brazilian Maxixe was the use of the rhythm we recognize as the
main rhythm of the cakewalk. It is also written that the Maxixe was a
predecessor of the Samba and of the European Polka. We also find the Afro-Cuba
influence in the rhythm that was also know as the Habanera and its syncopation
of Afro-Brazilian influence.
Blues/St. Louis Blues - 1913/1914 - W. C. Handy
C. handy is one of the best-known composers of popular music in America. Handy
published a song entitled "Jogo Blues" (sic: colored blues) in 1923 that met
with limited success. A year later, 1914, he came out with "St. Louis Blues"
which became one of the most lasting songs of popular music. St. Louis Blues was
reissued in 1926 as a dance band arrangement includes the melody of Jogo Blues.
In the introduction and middle section we recognize the Tango rhythm. We first
play the first part of '"Jogo Blues" and then "St. Louis Blues.
Mexico - 1904 - Cole
of the influences of early jazz and jazz instrumentation was the military brass
band. We find these types of bands were also popular in the early 19th
century in South American countries. While the jazz bands evolved from these
brass band (and string bands) brass bands flourishing in New Orleans, we also
find the evolving of what is called the Choro in Brazil. It is close to the New
Orleans development in both instrumentation and employing contrapuntal
techniques. We might add that in both musical cultural styles the dominating
force is the percussion section. It is the percussion rhythm that determines the
musical style. We have heard a cakewalk by changing the rhythms, can be made
into a Habanera and vice versa, further prove of the importance of the
percussive rhythm. We can hear this
influence of the military band in not only Brazilian military bands but in
Mexico and other Latin countries. We next hear a song called simply "Mexico"
and is marked 'Marcia' - i.e. to be played in a marching style.
Amorita - 1920 - Zamecnik
inclusion of Latin styles into American popular music continues and will
continue to be a part of popular music in America. As popular music developed in
America we hear of certain Latin dances becoming popular in America. As American
popular music developed we hear of certain Latin dances becoming popular in the
U. S. In the 20's it is the Rumba; in the 30's the Conga; in the 40's the
Samba and in the 50's the Mambo; and finally the Bossa Nova in the 60's. In
the 20's it was the merging of
the most popular style, the Fox Trot, with Latin elements. One of the best
examples to be found is in the song "Amorita", called a "Spanish Fox
Trot" song. We find a Spanish flavor to the melody with a Habanera/Cakewalk
rhythmic figure is use with a simple harmonic structure in the accompaniment. We
might also point out the progress of the use of new tonal colors with the use of
the saxophone. The sax was to become the dominant instrument during the jazz era
and with the swing bands it numbers 5 (2 altos, 2 tenors and a baritone sax).
Rosy Posy - 1922 - S.
less a composer than the famous Sigmund Romberg is influenced by the Latin
rhythms. From his musical the "Blusing Bride" of 1922, we find them in the
Fox Trot song 'Rosy Posy." After a 4 bar introduction with the last two bars
in Habanera rhythm we find the main theme stated that is in alternating two bar
phrases of a Fox Trot rhythm and a Tango rhythm. In measure 16 we hear the
simultaneous use of both the Fox Trot and the Tango rhythm. This is in 1922, 8
years after the height of the Tango's popularity of 1914.
Stomp - 1924 - Louis Armstrong
influence and converging of Latin rhythms and American jazz continues up to the
present date. There are many examples of jazz greats using Latin rhythms. A
listing of these would be like a who's who in jazz greats, from Dizzy
Gillespie, Stan Kenton, and Charlie Parker, to groups like Weather Report with
bassist Jaco Pastorious.
combination has no better example than the old time Fox Trot "Tea for Two"
which no longer can be played in a two-beat rhythm but as the "Tea For Two Cha
final chapter in our influence of the two musical styles of Latin music and Jazz
we see the influence on Louis Armstrong (who is said to have changed rhythms to
Latin in early jazz performances in a piece suing a characteristic Habanera
rhythm in an original composition
"New Orleans Stomp."